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About Toungy

  • Birthday 05/12/1993

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    The Netherlands
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    I'm interested in technology, programming, math, science, chemistry, music and art (especially anthro/furry art).<br /><br />Uhm.. I'm kind of a boring person :P

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    I Don't Play
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    Don't Care
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  1. So it's about as addictive as marijuana? (According to some study somewhere it is about the same. In terms of dependency.) Dependency =/= addiction. It is not possible to become dependent (which is usually used to refer to physical dependence) on drugs like ketamine, marijuana, amphetamine, etc. Addiction is different. Addiction, unlike physical dependence, is linked to hormone balances and 'peaks'. It is possible to become psychologically dependent on drugs like amphetamine and ketamine, but not drugs like marijuana. Which can be explained by their action. One thing ketamine and amphetamine share is that they trigger the release of natural hormones. Amphetamine is a classic example of this, it blocks the re-uptake of the hormones dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and serotonin, which causes them to be released from the synapse after the drug is inactivated, but also prevents them from being re-used by the receptor neuron. This leads the hormones to enter the bloodstream, where they quickly reach the liver and are metabolized by MAO-A/B. This also causes a 'dip' in the levels of hormones available in the receptor neurons, which leads to psychological dependence. Ketamine does not cause lower levels of hormones if used (not even after it wears off). Instead, ketamine is addictive because of the extreme amounts of dopamine that are released through its action as a selective opiate receptor agonist. This is also the case for amphetamine, only that it does not act through the opiate system. The brain recognizes the higher levels of dopamine (which are usually remarkably higher than can be achieved without the use of drugs), and links it to good behavior that should be repeated. Hence, ketamine and amphetamine are also quickly recognized and linked to the higher levels of dopamine and the user becomes addicted. This is also the reason that there is no 'down' after using ketamine. Hormone balances are quickly restored because the re-uptake of them is not inhibited. Physically, there is hardly any damage inflicted by ketamine. But, the brain will still link the high levels of dopamine to a new "peek" and will cause the user to simply, really feel like using the drug again. If used frequently, this can last for months, years or even an entire lifetime. After all, the only difference between ketamine's action on opiate receptor and heroin's (and other morphine-like substances), is that heroin also triggers the receptor for short-term addiction, which is not regulated by dopamine. Marijuana, in contrast, does not release any of the brain's primary hormones. It mimics the endogenous hormone anandamine, which is a relatively unimportant hormone of which the action is not fully understood yet, but has a relation to the body's eating pattern, short-term memory and stress. The hormone is not linked to rewarding behavior, so the worst psychological dependence one can get from marijuana is a slightly disrupted eating pattern, slightly higher stress levels and temporarily less functional short-term memory. PS: 'Amphetamine' refers to the range of amphetamine and amphetamine-like drugs, including amphetamine itself, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine and MDMA, amongst many others. 'Ketamine' also includes its analogues, the most commonly known one being PCP. PPS: DXM is an NMDA-receptor antagonist like ketamine, but does not have much (or any) action at the opiate receptors, unlike ketamine.
  2. Ketamine isn't very addictive. Amphetamines (including meth) aren't physically addictive either. Ketamine is very addictive. I don't know from personal experience luckily, but I have a few friends that are "hooked" on it. They're not constantly buying it or using it, but when it's available and they can afford it, they can go through about half a gram in a single day. It is true that ketamine does not cause much if any withdrawal symptoms besides wanting to do it again, and again, and again... But that doesn't make it "not addictive". It simply makes it too much fun not to use. ;)
  3. In my opinion, amphetamines are not drugs to be afraid of, if used carefully and responsibly. Amphetamines are a class of stimulants used medicinally mainly as anti-depressants and medicine for ADHD/ADD. By far the most commonly used amphetamines are methylphenidate (Ritalin/Concerta) and regular (dextro-) amphetamine (medical name Adderall, street name speed). Ritalin is a similar chemical to amphetamine, but its action is much more comparable to that of a low dose of cocaine. They both work in the sympathetic and central nervous system, releasing the natural hormones dopamine ('reward' hormone), serotonin ('love' hormone) and noradrenaline (wide range of effects). Its primary action as a performance booster and ADD suppressor is through increased noradrenaline levels, which in its turn stimulates glucose release in the body and improves endurance and the ability to concentrate. The hormone serotonin promotes motivation and social binding, and dopamine calms the user down, producing a mild euphoria and sense of well-being, which decreases ADHD symptoms. In non-pharmaceutical terms, amphetamines allow the user to work harder, focus for longer periods of time and more easily find the motivation to work without being toxic, addictive or intoxicating to the user. At least, in prescription doses (5-25 mg.) In my opinion, these are 'safe' doses to use occasionally for people who don't have ADHD/ADD. When referring to 'speed' as a drug, much higher doses are usually referred to. The threshold dose for recreational use is about 25-50 mg, which produces drastically different effects from the lower doses. If more than 25 mg of amphetamine is used, there can be a drop in hormone levels that the brain has stored, which causes a hangover and 'dip' after the drug wears off. In these doses, the drug can be toxic to the nervous system and has the risk of causing dependence. So basically, it's relatively safe to use a very small amount of amphetamine/methylphenidate (about as safe as two cups of coffee) when you have ADHD or ADD, but higher doses are very risky and can cause serious mental problems, including addiction, psychoses and heavy cravings that can last for months upon months. I think both should be legal. Cigarettes are a serious health risk but it is up to the person whether or not he/she wants to smoke. The effects are very mild (though also very addictive), and as long as non-smokers don't have to suffer from second-hand smoke, I think it's okay if adults smoke tobacco. There have been quite a few deaths from ecstasy use. Ecstasy is one of the least safe drugs to use. Pure MDMA (also known as 'ecstasy') is rare, and the pills are very commonly impure, containing other drugs as well like amphetamine, ketamine (a very addictive opiate), heroin, cocaine, ritalin, DXM, BZP, etc. 'Real' X (pure MDMA) is relatively safe to use but causes a serious down that can last for up to a few weeks. And there are only a few short-acting drugs. They include alcohol (1 hour or more, depending on how much is consumed), cocaine (5 mins - 1 hour), ketamine (half an hour - 1 hours, depending on dose), general solvents (5 mins - 2 hours), poppers (1-5 mins), nicotine (10 mins - 1 hour) and heroin/morphine (1-3 hours). These are also the most dangerous and addictive drugs that are commonly used, legally or illegally. The longer acting drugs like marijuana, LSD, mushrooms, 2C-B, etc. are not considered to be addictive and none of them cause a hangover. Yeah, great job, legalize soft drugs for all ages, why not? Yeah... why not? Please explain to me, in biological terms, why it would be more irresponsible to use marijuana at a young age than to, for example, drink a glass of cola (which contains phosphoric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carcinogenic flavors and colors, etc.). Many, many people agree that marijuana is not nearly as dangerous as most people think. It is a very mild, short-acting drug that has, 'till date, not been shown to be toxic in any way, except for some mild throat irritation (which subsides after a few days of not using the drug) and short-memory loss (which also subsides after a few days). Of course, the short term effects include intoxication and more severe memory loss... which is why it should be banned in schools and while driving. But that's up to the user to be responsible. (And I have never, ever met anyone who 'needed' to smoke marijuana. Not even the heaviest users that I know) (Though I do think that it should be illegal for children under 16 years old, as they can't really judge whether or not it would be responsible for them to use the drug.)
  4. Thats epic XD I'm soo doing that next time :P It's likely to blow up your gas line too, so I'd really, really advise you not to drop potassium into your sink. Our school has the gas coming from the roof and the water goes from the ground up. So maybe we got lucky. Still looked very cool :P I wonder if it was actually steam or if it was copious amounts of hydrogen gas xD Well, since it likely didn't catch fire (lack of oxygen) and definitely didn't explode (unless Doddsy forgot to mention that x3), it was probably hydrogen gas. :P
  5. Weird, Calcium should only react with hot water. Unless you were trying to get it to react with the water, of course. :P Thats epic XD I'm soo doing that next time :P It's likely to blow up your gas line too, so I'd really, really advise you not to drop potassium into your sink.
  6. Crack is the freebase form of cocaine. They're the same extremely addictive drug. ;) However, I agree with you. Whilst marijuana can be an excellent medicine in rare occasions, it is still primarily a recreational drug and illegal in most parts of the world. I think speed (amphetamine) should remain legal as medicine for ADHD. It is a very effective and relatively safe drug for this purpose. The illegal distribution should remain illegal though, in my opinion.
  7. The high achieved from cocaine can induce extreme mood swings, violent and aggressive behavior, twitching, hyperthermia, paranoia and insomnia. Overdose can easily lead to death through a heart attack or lethal hyperthermia, with the deadly dose being only 1.1 grams (tolerance excluded), which is very close to the recreational dose. (In comparison, the lethal dose of THC is over a thousand times the recreational dose) Dextro-amphetamine is a drug used in severe cases of ADHD, with all the same negative effects and dangers as the very commonly abused drug crystal meth. The recreational dose of dextro-amphetamine, or as it's commonly called: speed, is about 100 mg, whereas the dose for legal prescription use is only 5-10 mg. Dextro-amphetamine is almost as strong, destructive and addictive as crystal meth, just simply not in the doses used for patients with ADHD. Stimulants have been long known as one of the most dangerous type of drugs, alongside the opiates (heroin, morphine, methadone...) and depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, etc.), causing a whole range of negative effects, including severe addiction even after a single time's use. The user feels in control because cocaine releases a high amount of neurotransmitters in the brain linked to those feelings: dopamine and noradrenaline. Now the reason cocaine is not as dangerous as amphetamines in general is its shorter duration of action. A small bump of coke might get a heavy user high for only 20 minutes, whereas speed can keep a user high for over 15 hours with a single dose, effectively rendering it impossible to act and feel 'normal' the entire day. Mushrooms (and the other psychedelics like LSD), with the active compound psilocin and psilocybin (analogues of eachother), cause a very safe effect on the brain compared to stimulants. It does not disrupt the hormonal system in the long term like stimulants, it simply mimics a neurotransmitter at a certain site in the brain, causing a whole range of effects from hallucinations to mild euphoria, with almost no physical side effects and dangers. Psychedelics are more dangerous than stimulants or marijuana in a public setting, where one is expected to be able to judge situations correctly (ergo, while driving or walking outside) because they put the brain in a state where it's simply.. very confused, and it is nearly impossible to judge situations. Unlike marijuana, where it is usually still very easy to act normal and.. well, see the other cars. ;) But it's complicated. I guess you could say that in an outside or driving setting, stimulants wouldn't be very dangerous drugs. At least not in the way they'd affect those situations. But, if you include all the other risks from addiction to depletion of the body's energy, to neurological damage, cravings making it almost impossible to act normal when the user is not high.. I think they're a lot more dangerous than weed. Or shrooms. :3
  8. Cocaine is a very addictive, dangerous stimulant that is easily overdosed on with the lethal dose very close to the recreational dose. It is not safer than weed. ;) Yeah, 'safer' definitely isn't the right word :lol:. The effect it has on your body is less severe and you're much more socially capable, though. Driving, talking and forming logical thought pretty much can't be done with weed, but can with Cocaine. Weed completely alters your grip on reality, which is why it really can't be legalized without strict regulations. Have you seen people who're addicted to cocaine? Cocaine is very, very destructive. Cocaine, like other stimulants, is a strong anorexic drug. By releasing all the energy stored in the body at once (in the form of glucose), it will very quickly deplete the body's vital source of energy. This means very rapid cell death once the cocaine is no longer active in the body. Also, because it's an anorexic drug, users generally do not eat much. At least when they're high. But besides it's rapid physical destructiveness, cocaine also induces strong euphoria via the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin; the two basic neurotransmitters that the brain uses to reward itself. They also play a big roll in decision making and situation-judging. What this means, is that everything around them seems really good around someone who's high on cocaine, for the user at least. It basically completely destroys the ability to make choices and judge situations. And for a habitual marijuana user, the drug doesn't really prevent them from talking normally or thinking logically. From my own experience with the drug and other people who've used it, I'd say though that most marijuana users are very aware of the situation they're in, or could be getting into. You still know that driving stoned is a very bad idea, and that you probably shouldn't have dinner with your parents blazed. :P It's not gonna make you make choices that you normally wouldn't.
  9. Cocaine is a very addictive, dangerous stimulant that is easily overdosed on with the lethal dose very close to the recreational dose. It is not safer than weed.
  10. Illegal marijuana sales in the US generate over 36 billion dollars a year in profit, making it the number one cash crop in America. By legalizing the sale, all that money could be taxed. Though I doubt it would be an economy 'saver', it'd help. Personally, I think marijuana should be legalized in the same way that tobacco is. The choice should be up to the person themselves whether or not they want to use the drug.
  11. It's the phenomena when an electric current is run through a metal, creating a magnetic force, nothing theoretic about that. The theory is the part that explains the phenomena, the commonly accepted one having something to do with orientation of the electrons in the atoms.. or something. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetism I think the OP meant whether or not that theory has been proved, or if it is simply a generally accepted theory. Owing to its nature as a scientific theory, it is based on the results of various tests and is considered highly likely to be true, but has not been proved true by actual observation of the electrons switching directions. This of course because electrons are way, way, WAY too small to be observed visually, being only a tiny fraction the size of an atom. We can't even visualize atoms properly, so the only real way to form theories on these small particle scales is by doing experiments and looking for logical conclusions, like the theory behind electromagnetism.
  12. No, not a lot of metal listeners fit the aggressive alcoholic stereotype, if that's the stereotype we're talking about. Metallica is basically the only metal band you listed. And what does Bob Marley have to do with this.. at all? O.o I like metal and I don't like any of those bands. Stereotyped much? What an ironic post. What a convincing argument. I love metal! I think it's a great music style. Not always as artistic, per se, but very creative. There's little noise, screaming and painfully loud things that people actually enjoy listening to, metal being one of them. For me, it's a great way to lose negative energy. I don't think I'd be nearly as energetic without it. (I do like a LOT of other genres, though)
  13. Luc?! You exist?!Why yes. :P Yeah, tell me about it. My friends always refer to my orientation as 'gay', and I just go along with it because I don't want to spend the time expounding on my life story. I almost didn't post this entry because it was sort of personal, but I'm glad I did it now. :oI'm glad you did too! If you ever feel like just chatting, about non-serious totally non-related to this topic stuff too, please feel free to PM. :P(not an April Fool's joke or whatever, that'd be lame x3)
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